GENETICS

Page 1. FLOWERS AND FRUITS

A. Microspore development in Lilium

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Lilium, anther l.s. for general study

Lilium, anther t.s. for general study showing pollen chambers and pollen grains

Lilium, anther t.s., binucleate mature pollen grains at the time of shedding with tube cell and generative cell

Lilium, anther t.s., early prophase for general study

Lilium, anther t.s., late prophase for general study

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in diakinesis

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in diplotene

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in leptotene

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in pachytene

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in tetrad stage

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells in zygotene

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells showing metaphase and anaphase of first (heterotypic) division (meiosis)

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells showing metaphase and anaphase of second (homeotypic) division (mitosis)

Lilium, anther t.s., microspore mother cells showing telophase of first and prophase of second (homeotypic) division

Lilium, anther t.s., third division +

Lilium, anther t.s., uninucleate (haploid) microspores after the separation of the daughter cells

Lilium, anther t.s., very young with microspore mother cells and tapetal layers

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B. Pollen types

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Ambrosia, ragweed, pollen grains w.m.

Corylus, hazel, pollen grains w.m.

Helianthus and Cucurbita, pollen grains w.m.

Helianthus, sunrose, pollen grains w.m.

Lilium, mature pollen grains w.m.

Mixed pollen types, showing various forms of many different species

Oenothera, pollen w.m. showing viscin filaments

Tulipa, anthers with pollen and pollen chambers t.s.

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C. Fertilization

 

Fritillaria, nectary with glands t.s.

Lilium, germinating pollen grains with pollen tubes w.m.

Lilium, l.s. through pistil and stigma with pollen and pollen tubes

Lilium, t.s. of stigma before pollination

Oenothera, evening primrose, stigma with pollen grains and pollen tubes l.s

Stigma of Eschscholtzia, l.s. showing penetrating pollen

Stigma of Eschscholtzia, w.m. showing penetrating pollen

Vicia, bean, stigma and anthers, w.m.

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D. Megaspore development in Lilium

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Lilium, ovary t.s., binucleate embryosac

Lilium, ovary t.s., eight-nucleate embryosac showing all the nuclei in one or more serial sections

Lilium, ovary t.s., embryosac showing double fertilization in one or more serial sections

Lilium, ovary t.s., first four-nucleate stage

Lilium, ovary t.s., second four-nucleate stage, a vacuole can be seen between the nuclei

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing fourth division

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing migration of 3 nuclei to the chalazal end of the embryosac while 1 nucleus remains in the micropylar end

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing second (homeotypic) division with two division figures

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing the stage of eight-nucleate embryosac for general study, not all nuclei present

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing third division after the three chalazal nuclei have fused

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing uninucleate embryosac with megaspore mother cell

Lilium, ovary t.s., uninucleate embryosac with first (heterotypic) division of megaspore mother cell

Lilium, ovary t.s., very young, shows developing tissue before the formation of the megaspore mother cell. Obvious abundant mitotic figures

Lilium, ovary t.s., with megaspore mother cell

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E. Ovaries, formation of ovules and embryos (monocot)

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Epipactis, orchid, ovary with ovules t.s.

Fritillaria, fritillary, ovary with embryosac t.s.

Hyacinthus, ovary t.s.

Iris, t.s. of ovary showing arrangement of ovules

Iris, t.s. of ovary showing later stage of embryo and endosperm

Lilium, ovary l.s., showing arrangement of ovules and all structures

Lilium, ovary t.s., early embryonic stage

Lilium, ovary t.s., mature seed with embryo and endosperm

Lilium, ovary t.s., showing arrangement of ovules and all structures for general study

Lilium. ovary t.s., mature embryo

Ovary types, composite slide with four t.s. through various typical types of ovaries

Ovary, t.s. showing anatropic attachment of ovules

Ovary, t.s. showing kampylotropic attachment of ovules

Ovary, t.s. showing orthotropic attachment of ovules

Tulipa, l.s. of ovary showing arrangement of ovules

Tulipa, l.s. of ovary showing development of embryos

Tulipa, tulip, t.s. of ovary showing arrangement of ovules and all structures for general study

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F. Ovaries, formation of ovules and embryos (dicot)

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Capsella bursa pastoris, shepherd's purse, l.s. of ovule with embryos in situ for general study

Capsella, l.s. of embryo in early cotyledon stage

Capsella, l.s. of embryo in later cotyledon stage

Capsella, l.s. of embryo in precotyledon stage

Capsella, l.s. of embryo with curving cotyledons (mature)

Helleborus, l.s. of atrope ovary

Hyoscyamus, t.s. of older ovary

Hyoscyamus, t.s. of young ovary

Impatiens, t.s. of ovary

Lathraea, t.s. of elder ovary

Lathraea, t.s. of young ovary

Lathraea, toothwort, ovary of a parasitic plant t.s.

Monotropa, Indian pipe, ovary t.s. with developing embryosacs

Rosa , rose, ovary t.s.

Solanum, potato, t.s. of ovary with formation of embryos

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G. Flowers and floral diagrams (monocot)

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Monocot and dicot flower buds t.s. on same slide for comparison

Lilium candidum, lily, t.s. of flower bud showing floral diagram of a monocot

Lilium, l.s. of flower bud

Galanthus, snowdrop, t.s. of flower

Secale, rye, t.s. of a typical gramineous flower

Zea, t.s. of male flower

Anthurium, flamingo plant, pedicel with flowers t.s.

Arum maculatum, cuckoopint, l.s. of flower, insect trap

Arum maculatum, t.s. of flower bud showing ovary

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H. Flowers and floral diagrams (dicot)

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Bellis, l.s. of a composite flower bud

Caltha palustris, l.s. of flower

Cheirantus, wallflower, t.s. of flower bud with marginal-parietale placentation

Corylus avellana, diclinous female flower l.s.

Corylus avellana, hazel, diclinous male flower l.s.

Cucurbita, pumpkin, t.s. of female flower

Linum, flax, t.s. of flower

Lycopersicum, l.s. of flower bud

Lycopersicum, tomato, t.s. of flower bud shows floral diagram and axile placentation

Magnolia, t.s. of flower bud showing anthers with microspore mother cells

Papaver, poppy, t.s. of flower shows parietal placentation

Papaver, poppy, t.s. of older flower, formation of embryos

Primula, primose, t.s. of flower

Prunus avium, cherry, flower bud with perigynous ovary l.s.

Pyrus malus, apple, flower bud with hypogynous ovary l.s.

Ranunculus, buttercup, l.s. of flower

Ribes, currant, l.s. of flower bud

Senecio, t.s. of a composite flower

Solanum tuberosum, potato, t.s. flower bud for floral diagram

Taraxacum, dandelion, l.s. of composite flower with tubular florets and ligulate florets

Taraxacum, t.s. of composite flower

Triticum , wheat, grain l.s. showing embryo

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I. Simple fruits

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Aesculus hippocastanum, chestnut, young fruit l.s.

Citrus, lemon, young fruit t.s.

Cocos nucifera, coconut, endosperm t.s.

Corylus avellana, hazelnut, young stone fruit t.s.

Cruzifera sp., mustard or other, t.s. of silique with seed

Iris, t.s. of mature seed

Juglans regia, walnut, young drupe (stone fruit) t.s.

Lycopersicum, tomato, young fruit t.s.

Prunus domestica, plum, young drupe (stone fruit) t.s.

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J. Aggregate fruits

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Ficus carica, fig, young fruit t.s.

Fragaria, strawberry, young aggregate fruit l.s.

Morus, mulberry, young multiple fruit l.s.

Pyrus malus, apple, young pome t.s., a fleshy, many seeded fruit

Ranunculus, l.s. of fruit

Ranunculus, t.s. of fruit

Ribes, l.s. of a simple berry fruit

Rosa , syncarpous fruit l.s.

Rubus idaeus, raspberry, young aggregate fruit l.s.

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K. Seeds

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Amygdalus, almond, endosperm t.s.

Ananas comosus, sec.

Asparagus, t.s. of seed

Cuscuta chinensis, t.s.

Helianthus, sunflower, t.s. of achene fruit

Hyacinthus, mature seed t.s.

Juglans, walnut, mesocarp with stone cells t.s.

Lycopersicon esculentum, sec.

Myristica, nutmeg, endosperm t.s.

Phaseolus, bean, t.s. of pod showing pericarp and seed

Pinus tabulaeformis, l.s.

Populus, poplar, hairs from seed w.m.

Ricinus, t.s. of seed showing aleurone grains in endosperm with cotyledons

Sapium sebiferum, l.s.

Secale, rye, grain (seed) t.s.

Solanum tuberosum, l.s.

Triticum, grain (seed), sagittal l.s. showing embryo and endosperm

Triticum, wheat, grain (seed), t.s. showing embryo and endosperm

Tropaeolum, nasturtium. semen (seed) t.s.

Zea mays or Triticum, germinating seed l.s.

Zea mays, corn, grain (seed) l.s. showing embryo and endosperm

Zea mays, young corn cob t.s.

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